Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education
Book file PDF easily for everyone and every device.
You can download and read online Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education file PDF Book only if you are registered here.
And also you can download or read online all Book PDF file that related with Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education book.
Happy reading Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education Bookeveryone.
Download file Free Book PDF Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education at Complete PDF Library.
This Book have some digital formats such us :paperbook, ebook, kindle, epub, fb2 and another formats.
Here is The CompletePDF Book Library.
It's free to register here to get Book file PDF Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education Pocket Guide.
The topics under review include questioning the developmental basis of early childhood education and the notion of what constitutes child centered curriculum, and extends into a discussion of the complex nature of teacher's work in early childhood contexts which require new ways of reconceptualising the field and the role of the teacher in the lives of children. The chapters in the book explore contemporary issues using methodologies that are increasingly being favored by teacher educators, parents and community members who find that developmental perspectives do not satisfactorily explain and assist us in our interactions with young children and their families in the 21st century.
The table of contents begins with a dedication, a list of contributors, a list of figures, and a list of tables. The chapters are then divided into 3 parts.
Her current work explores the role of new technologies in curricula and examines the ways in which pedagogies need to designed to engage children in learning in schools "About this title" may belong to another edition of this title. Great condition Learn more about this copy. Other Popular Editions of the Same Title. Open U Search for all books with this author and title. Customers who bought this item also bought.
Stock Image. Used Quantity Available: 1. Access is limited. There are few institutions which care for children aged 0—6 years and most ECEC centres for 3 and 6 years old are found only in urban areas and are of poor quality [ 28 , 30 ]. Support from international organisations is mainly used for ECEC of children aged 3 years and above [ 1 ], so 0—3 year provision is particularly neglected. A large number of disadvantaged families have found it difficult to get access to ECEC in African countries [ 1 , 9 ].
Further, it is argued that there are challenges in developing ECEC programmes in under-resourced countries in Africa [ 9 , 17 , 31 ].
Young and Mustard [ 17 , p. It has been argued that many African countries are looking closely at what services might be developed, at what cost, and for what expected benefits for children immediately prior to their entry into primary school [ 4 ]. Tanzania got its independence from British protectorate in After independence, Tanzania had to reform its education system in order to match the education provision with the needs of its people.
So the government opened up doors to private institutions to run ECEC, while it concentrated on investing in primary, secondary, and higher levels of education [ 33 ]. This made it essential to enrol children in basic education in order for them to become productive members of society by taking on manual work in the community for self-sufficiency after completion of their primary education.
ECEC matters progressed slowly with untrained teachers who had no formalised curriculum. Teachers just taught using their own experiences which were not founded in the ECEC area and they had guidelines which were also not prepared by ECEC experts [ 35 ]. As a response to international and national policies advocating the importance of education for young children as a right, the Tanzanian government also adopted this agenda.
Critical Issues In Early Childhood Education - Yelland, Nicola - Google книги
The World Conference on Education for All held in at Jomtien, Thailand, marked a new start in the global quest to universalize basic education and eradicate illiteracy. Through the Jomtien Declaration and the Framework for Action, commitments were made and directions set for a decade of large-scale and sustained efforts [ 38 ]. The consensus reached at the World Summit by the countries present at this conference set a target for all children to be enrolled in primary education by the year [ 40 ]. But this is yet to happen in Tanzania.
The situation of children in Tanzania is still not satisfactory, and children are disadvantaged due to the inadequacy of social services, such as schools, health facilities, and environmental services [ 41 ]. In Tanzania , children under 5 years die each year and more than 2 million children are affected with malnutrition number [ 33 , 41 ] from a total current population is Furthermore, a study by [ 33 ] reported that the few ECEC settings observed had limited resources. Children have no access to education due to high poverty, poor health services, and likewise, street children, pastoralist families Maasai family have no permanent settlement so it becomes difficult for them to get access to education [ 43 ].
Against the tide: new ways for early childhood education
These are just some of the many issues hindering children from getting opportunities to participate in ECEC. The government normally gets funds from internal and external sources for various uses. All funds, whether internal or external, are collected in one container and thereafter distributed to various sectors. Therefore, the Ministry of Education in Tanzania also gets funds from the government to run educational matters. Funds from various sources, whether internal or external sources are collected in one container, thereafter the amount is allocated to various sectors according to the requirement and the availability of funds.
However, the Ministry of Education did not allocate funds for operating preschools. For example, it is argued that the government through the Ministry of Education should supply Quota Budget Code to preschool education. Quota Budget Code refers to the system of supplying grants to schools, teacher education, and higher institutions in a quarterly basis. In turn, the implementation is problematic; the allocation of funds for the preschool education through Quota Budget Code is not yet implemented.
Preschool education does not have its own budget.
Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education
Instead the funds are allocated to primary school unit hoping that if any extra could support preschool education, however, in reality even the amount allocated for primary schools is not enough to handle primary education matters [ 6 , 36 ]. Preschool education is therefore funded through parents and community donations organised by local committees.
For that matter, the situation in early childhood education and care settings in Tanzania is not conducive for children to learn various knowledge and skills. For instance, building facilities are poor and not completed and the local community seemed unable to manage the provision of quality teaching and learning resources, let alone donation in monetary form.
Therefore, the government policy-makers need to set clear policies regarding how ECEC could be funded and conducted. These facilities were supposed to be provided by the government through the national policy guidelines on how ECEC could be funded and conducted. However, this is not the case.
Briefly, it is imperative that ECEC is recognised within education as the foundation for lifelong learning [ 2 , 12 ]. Numerous countries worldwide recognise that education in the early years lays down the basis for all levels of education. In developing countries, like Tanzania, the situation of education for young children is not satisfactory. There are large numbers of children who do not have access to ECEC settings for a number of reasons such as lack of support from the government, lack of awareness of parents of the importance of early investment, low socio-economic status of parents, traditional norms and cultural values, and gender discrimination.
It is therefore of the highest priority that access to early childhood education and care services is enabled for all young children. It is within these early years that young children present the greatest ability to learn and develop. All efforts to develop education from the early years onwards should pay consideration to access, quality provision, and relevance to enable children to reach their full potential. A key factor influencing the enactment of curricula is that of teacher qualifications, teacher education, and professional development.
However, the ETP is silent about the qualifications of ECEC teachers and as a result the implementation of this policy remains in question [ 40 ].
Critical Issues in Early Childhood Education
In some areas where children have access to early education settings, unqualified teachers work with young children without having knowledge and skill in relation to ECEC matters. Children are taught by retired teachers and volunteers on contractual bases and in other areas they are taught by primary school teachers who also teach primary school pupils as a result they had a heavy workload which reduce their efficiency.
But in both circumstances, no professional development is taking place in order to improve the teaching and learning situation. The concern of poor human resources is important, because qualified teachers with pedagogical skills to work with young children are reflected in positive learning outcomes. The government is responsible for locating qualified teachers as well as professional development; however, this appears not to be happening.
A main argument here is that having primary teachers in the preschool resulted in inappropriate teaching styles; they lack the pedagogical skills for teaching young children, as they are not trained to teach young children, and a theoretical understanding of play-based learning is lacking. Literature shows that ECEC teachers do not get opportunities to attend any professional development for teaching a preschool class [ 30 , 33 ].
Early childhood teacher education is envisaged as addressing both present issues and aspirations. A numerous literature show that qualified teachers rich in pedagogical skills to work with young children can demonstrate social interactions, relationships and activities that promote learning and development [ 12 , 13 , 19 ]. Hence, spontaneous and reciprocal interactions within the context of caring relationships are vital components of ECEC.
Qualified teachers are expected to draw on their knowledge and experience of working with young children and pedagogy to offer the kinds of cognitive and non-cognitive skills that are linked with gains for children.